Rickets: A Literature Review
Keywords:Calcium, phosphate, rickets, vitamin D deficiency
Vitamin D and calcium are important nutrients in bones. Bone growth and mineralization are dependent on the availability of adequate calcium and phosphate. Due to the lack of mineralization in the bone plates it causes rickets. Rickets is the most common bone disease worldwide and became known in 1650’s when it first appeared in Europe. Rickets can have a profound impact on the health, growth and development of infant’s, children’s and adolescent’s which can result in death or persistence to adult. Rickets is a metabolic disease of the bones, that is often associated with vitamin D deficiency and decreased circulating calcium storage, mainly due to a lack of bone capacity to absorb the calcium. Usually people with rickets have a short stature and have joint disorders. There are several types of rickets, such as rickets type-1 and type-2 that depend on vitamin D (but in type-2 rickets involves a genetic disorder related to the FGF23 gene), renal rickets due to decreased of kidney function, rickets hypocalcemia caused by deficiency of calcium, and hypophosphatemic rickets caused by deficiency of phosphate. Rickets can be diagnosed based on history, physical examination, radiological examination and biochemical tests.
Fischer V, Luntzer MH, Amling M, Ignatius A. Calcium and vitamin D in bone fracture healing and post-traumatic bone turnover. Journal of European Cells and Materials. 2018;35:365-85.
Miller WL. Genetic disorders of vitamin D biosynthesis and degradation. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular. 2017;165:101-8.
Jeon SM, Shin EA. Exploring vitamin D metabolism and function in cancer. Journal of Experimental and Molecular Medicine. 2018;50(4):1-14.
Peacock M. Calcium metabolism in health and diseas. Clinical Journal American Society Nephrology. 2010;5(1):23-30.
Elizabeth W. The pathology of vitamin D deficiency in domesticated animals: an evolutionary and comparative overview. International Journal of Paleopathology. 2018;23:100-9.
Sahay M, Sahay R. Rickets-vitamin D deficiency and dependency. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2012;16(2):164-76.
Carpenter TO, Shaw NJ, Portale AA. Rickets. Journal of Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2017;3:17101.
Acar S, Demir K. Shi Y. Genetic causes of rickets. Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology. 2017;9(2):88-105.
Chanchlani R, Nemer P, Sinha R, Nemer L, Krishnappa V, Sochett E, Dkk. An overview of rickets in children. Journal of Kidney International Reports. 2020;5(7):980-90.
Zhang M, Shen F, Petryk A, Tang J, Chen X, Sergi C. English disease: historical notes on rickets, the bone-lung link and child neglect issues. Journal of Nutrients. 2016. 8(11):1-17.
Wheeler BJ, Snoddy AM, Munns C, Simm P, Siafarikas A, Jefferies C. A brief history of nutritional rickets. Journal of Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2019;10:1-4.
Fukumoto S, Ozono K, Michigami T, Minagawa M, Okazaki R, Sugimoto T, Dkk. Pathogenesis and diagnostic criteria for rickets and osteomalacia. Journal of Endocrinology. 2015;62(8):665-71.
Prentice A. Nutritional rickets around the world. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry Molecular Biology. 2013;136:201-6.
Al-Sharafi BA, Al-Imad SA, Shamshair AM, Al-Faqeeh DH. Severe rickets in a young girul caused by celiac disease: the tragedy of delayed diagnosis: a case report. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:1-5.
Mughal MZ. Rickets. Current Osteoporosis Reports. 2011;9(4):291-9.
Michalus I, Rusinska A. Rare, genetically conditioned forms of rickets: differential diagnosis and advances in diagnostics and treatment. Journal of Clinical Genetics. 2018;94(1):103-14.
Jagtap VS, Sarathi V, Laila AR. Hypophosphatemic rickets. Indian Journal of Endocrinology Metabolism. 2012;16:177-82.
Munns CF, Shaw N, Kiely M, Specker BL, Thacher TD, Ozono K, Dkk. Global consensus recommendations on prevention and management of nutritional rickets. Horms Res Paeditric. 2016;85(2):83-106.
Japelt RB, Jakobsen J. Vitamin D in plants: a review of occurrence, analysis and biosynthesis. Front Plant Sci. 2014;4(136):1-26.
Noor Z. Buku ajar gangguan musculoskeletal. Jakarta: Salemba Medika;2016.
Al-Rekhawi HA, Ayyad AA, Abu Naser SS. Rickets expert system diagnoses and treatment. International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems. 2017;1(4):149-59.
Agarwal RP, Gupta SK. PHPT masquerading as rickets in children and presenting with rare skeletal manifestations: report of three cases and review of literature. Indian Journal Endocrinology Metabolism. 2018;22(5):705-9.
Noor Z. Buku ajar gangguan musculoskeletal. Jakarta: Salemba Medika; 2016.
Shroff R, Wan M, Nagler EV, Bakkaloglu S, Fischer DC, Bishop N, Dkk. Clinical practice recommendations for native vitamin D therapy ini children with chronic kidney disease stages 2-5 and on dialysis. Nephology Dialysis Transplantation Journal. 2017;32(7):1098-113.
Ariganjoye R. Pediatric hypovitaminosis D. Global Pediatric Health. 2017;4:1-7.
Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, Del VHB, editors. Dietry reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington DC: National Academies Press, National Academy of Sciences; 2011.
Dahash BA, Sankraraman S. Rickets [Internet]. Treasure Island: StatPearls Publishing; 2020 [diperbarui tanggal 9 November 2020; disitasi tanggal 21 Desember 2020]. Tersedia dari: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK562285/
Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Dkk. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of Vitamin D deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism. 2011;96(7):1911-30.
Skalova S, Kutilek S. Transient hyperphosphatemia: a benign laboratory disorder in a boy with Gitelman syndrome. Jorunal Brazilian Nefrology. 2016;38(3):363-5.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 MEDULA
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.